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Evaluation of Infix expression

Written on:October 2, 2012
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Application of Stacks

Evaluation of Infix expression

An infix expression is evaluated using two stacks, one for operator and another for operands.  The infix sting is read in an array, from which symbols/characters are fetched one by one and the following checks are performed:

  • If symbol is an operand, push it in operand’s stack.
  • Initialize operator stack with a dummy operator with the least precedence (say #).
  • If the symbol is an operator, then do the following:
    • Pop an operator from the operator stack.
    • Check its precedence with the symbol.
    • If the precedence of the symbol is higher, then simply push the popped operator and then the symbol.
    • Else if the precedence of symbol is lower (or equal to) than the popped operator, pop two operands, (opnd2 and opnd1) and perform operation specified by popped operator.
    • Push the result in operand’s stack.
    • Repeat above steps until the symbol becomes less than the popped operator.
  • After the string ends, start popping an operator from the operator stack and two operands from operand stack.
  • Repeat step (d) until dummy operator (#) is found.
  • Pop the value from the operand stack and return it.

Program to evaluate an Infix expression:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>

#define MAX 10

struct opndstack
{
int top;
double items[MAX];
};

struct optrstack
{
int top;
char items[MAX];
};

void pushopnd(struct opndstack *s,double val)
{
if(s->top==MAX-1)
{
printf(“nStack Overflow.”);
exit(1);
}
else
{s->items[++(s->top)]=val;
}
}

double popopnd(struct opndstack *s)
{
if(s->top==-1)
{
printf(“nStack Underflow.”);
exit(1);
}
else
{
return(s->items[(s->top)–]);
}
}

void pushoptr(struct optrstack *s,char ch)
{
if(s->top==MAX-1)
{
printf(“nStack Overflow.”);
exit(1);
}
else
{s->items[++(s->top)]=ch;
}
}

char popoptr(struct optrstack *s)
{
if(s->top==-1)
{
printf(“nStack Underflow.”);
exit(1);
}
else
{
return(s->items[(s->top)–]);
}
}

int isdigit(char ch)
{return(ch>=’0′ && ch<=’9′);
}

int isoperator(char ch)
{
switch(ch)
{
case ‘+':
case ‘-‘:
case ‘*':
case ‘/':
case ‘^':
return 1;
default:
return 0;
}
}

double eval(char ch,double opnd1,double opnd2)
{
switch(ch)
{
case ‘+':return(opnd1+opnd2);
case ‘-‘:return(opnd1-opnd2);
case ‘*':return(opnd1*opnd2);
case ‘/':return(opnd1/opnd2);
case ‘^':return(pow(opnd1,opnd2));
default:printf(“nInvalid operator.”);
exit(1);
}
}

int precedence(char ch)
{
switch(ch)
{
case ‘#': return 0;
case ‘+':
case ‘-‘: return 1;
case ‘*':
case ‘/':return 2;
case ‘^':return 3;
case ‘(‘:return 4;
default :printf(“nInvalid operator.”);
exit(1);
}
}

double infix(char str[])
{
double opnd1,opnd2,value;
char ch;
opndstack opndstk;
optrstack optrstk;
opndstk.top=-1;
optrstk.top=-1;
pushoptr(&optrstk,’#’);
int i=0;
char optr2;
for(i=0;str[i]!=’�';i++)
{
if(isdigit(str[i]))
pushopnd(&opndstk,(double)(str[i]-‘0′));
else if(isoperator(str[i]))
{optr2=popoptr(&optrstk);
if(precedence(str[i])>precedence(optr2))
{pushoptr(&optrstk,optr2);
pushoptr(&optrstk,str[i]);
}
else
{
while(precedence(str[i])<=precedence(optr2))
{ opnd2=popopnd(&opndstk);
opnd1=popopnd(&opndstk);
value = eval(optr2,opnd1,opnd2);
pushopnd(&opndstk,value);
optr2=popoptr(&optrstk);
}
pushoptr(&optrstk,optr2);
pushoptr(&optrstk,str[i]);
}
}
}
while((ch=popoptr(&optrstk))!=’#’)
{
opnd2=popopnd(&opndstk);
opnd1=popopnd(&opndstk);
value=eval(ch,opnd1,opnd2);
pushopnd(&opndstk,value);
}
return(popopnd(&opndstk));
}

void main()
{
char str[80];
int i;
clrscr();
printf(“nEnter an infix string?”);
for(i=0;(str[i]=getchar())!=’n';i++);
str[i]=’�';
printf(“nInfix String = %s”,str);
printf(“nEvaluation of infix = %f”,infix(str));
getch();
}

 

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